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|Title:||Design and development of a hybrid macrophyte assisted vermifilter for the treatment of dairy wastewater: A statistical and kinetic modelling approach|
Macrophyte assisted vermifilter
Vertical and horizontal flow
|Abstract:||Global urbanization, exponential increase in population and sophisticated life style of the present generation are the major causes leading to a rapid increase in water demand in recent years. In order to nullify this rising water demand, it's high time to reuse domestic as well as industrial effluent after providing suitable chemical/biological treatment. Macrophyte filter incorporated with earthworm is identified as one of the most economic system for the treatment purpose in developing countries. However, very few literatures and technical information are available to scale up the design and its easy operation. This paper aims to develop a hybrid system and assess its performance for the purification of dairy wastewater. In the present study, two stage macrophyte assisted vermifilters (MAVFs) have been designed. The 1st stage encompassed a vertical flow (VF) unit, and the 2nd stage contained a horizontal flow (HF) unit. Both the units were inoculated with earthworm Eisenia fetida and were planted with Canna indica. Box-Behnken model was applied to design the system and study the effect of various parameters. It was observed that hybrid MAVF system removed a maximum of 83.2% COD and 57.3% TN at HLR 0.6 m/d and an active layer depth of 30 cm. Ammonification and nitrification typically occurred in the active layer (earthworm inoculated zone) of VF unit due to high activity of earthworms and its associated gut microbes, whereas HF unit facilitate denitrification process. Earthworm growth characteristics in the system were monitored, which is an imperative factor for the design of MAVF reactor. Kinetic modelling of 1st order, grau 2nd order and Stover-Kincannon model were performed and the Stover-Kincannon model showed high regression coefficient (COD, R2 0.9961 and TN, R2 0.9353) supporting its applicability as compared to the other models. � 2018|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Publications|
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